Raksha mancham - ten-dzong ma-mi (the faith's fortress fighters)


The whole scene of judgment of the dead is enacted through this cham. In this dramatized performance of mask dances, all the ethics of a fair trial is shown in accordance with the principles of natural justice. Principles such as bringing of the accused before a judge, right to a legal counsel, incessant hearing, making the charges known, and producing evidences, prosecution of crimes based on facts and evidences. Perhaps Bhutanese Criminal Laws has its source and origin in this Cham. In this cham the trial begins with the production of the accused, by the name of Nyalbum in front of Raksha Lango. Nyalbum is given a hearing in the presence of all the Gochens, and this depicts a fair and public trial. In this trial Lha Karpo is the Defence Counsel and Due Nagpo, the Prosecutor. Due Nagpo, the prosecutor submits the report of crimes committed by Nyalbum. He is accused of crimes against people, animals, property and environment, deception and libel. Due Nagpo requests the Lord to punish Nyalbum by sending him to hell for all his wrong doings and not to show him any compassion as it would override the views of the public. The presence of Lha Karpo as the defence counsel for Nyalbum affirms the right to fair trail in the court of the Lord of Purgatory. Lha Karpo submits his views, justifying the crimes committed by Nyalbum. The crimes having been committed in ignorance and out of mitigating necessity, on Nyalbum’s behalf Lha Karpo pleads to liberate Nyalbum through compassion. The lord of purgatory having heard both Lha Karpo and Due Nagpo and the trial conducted in the open and in presence of all the Gochens, gives articulate judgment based on the facts and evidences. He pronounces the accused guilty of the crime and holds Nyalbum responsible for the consequences of his own wrong doings, tells him he has to suffer for it.


Raksha Mancham - Ten-Dzong Ma-Mi (The Faith's Fortress Fighters)Raksha Mancham - Ten-Dzong Ma-Mi (The Faith's Fortress Fighters)Raksha Mancham - Ten-Dzong Ma-Mi (The Faith's Fortress Fighters)Raksha Mancham - Ten-Dzong Ma-Mi (The Faith's Fortress Fighters)

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